The Definition Of Addiction
Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug seeking and use that is compulsive. It’s difficult to control, despite harmful consequences. The initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people. However, repeated drug use can lead to brain changes that challenge an addicted person’s self-control. This interferes with their ability to resist intense urges to take drugs. These brain changes can be persistent, which is why drug addiction is considered a “relapsing” disease—people in recovery from drug use disorders are at increased risk for returning to drug use even after years of not taking the drug.
There are always cases where a person relapses, but relapse does not mean that treatment failed. Effective aftercare programs should include ongoing treatment and should be adjusted based on how the patient responds. Treatment plans need to be reviewed often and modified to fit the patient’s changing needs.
How The Brain Is Affected With Substance Abuse
Substance abuse affects the brain’s “reward circuit” by flooding it with the chemical messenger dopamine. Under normal circumstances, this reward system controls the body’s ability to feel pleasure and motivates a person to repeat behaviors needed to thrive, such as eating and spending time with loved ones. This over-stimulation of the reward circuit causes the intensely pleasurable “high” that can lead people to take a drug again and again.
As a person continues to use drugs, the brain adjusts to the excess dopamine by making less of it and/or reducing the ability of cells in the reward circuit to respond to it. This reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drug—an effect known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug, trying to achieve the same dopamine high. It can also cause them to get less pleasure from other things they once enjoyed, like food or social activities.
Long-term use also causes changes in other brain chemical systems and circuits as well, affecting functions that include:
Despite being aware of these harmful outcomes, many people who use drugs continue to take them, which is the nature of addiction.
Predictive Factors That Determine Potential Addiction
No one factor can predict if a person will become addicted to drugs. A combination of factors influences the risk of addiction. The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that taking drugs can lead to addiction. For example:
The genes that people are born with account for about half of a person’s risk of addiction. Gender, ethnicity, and the presence of other mental disorders may also influence the risk of drug use and addiction.
A person’s environment includes many different influences, from family and friends to economic status and general quality of life. Factors such as peer pressure, physical and sexual abuse, early exposure to drugs, stress, and parental guidance can greatly affect a person’s likelihood of drug use and addiction.
Genetic and environmental factors interact with critical developmental stages in a person’s life to affect addiction risk. Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction, the earlier that drug use begins, the more likely it will progress to addiction.
There Is No Cure For Addiction, But It Is Treatable
As with most other chronic diseases, opiate addiction treatment generally isn’t technically a cure. However, addiction is treatable and can be successfully managed. People who are recovering from an addiction will be at risk for relapse for years. They may possibly for their whole lives. Studies show that combining addiction treatment medicines with behavioral therapy ensures the best chance of success for most patients. Treatment approaches tailored to each patient’s drug use patterns and any co-occurring medical, mental, and social problems can lead to a successful and continued recovery.
More importantly, drug use and addiction are preventable. Prevention programs involving families, schools, communities, and the media are useful for preventing or diminishing drug use and addiction. Although personal experiences and cultural attributes tend to affect drug use trends, when young people view drug use as harmful, drug use is avoided. Education and outreach are key to helping people understand the possible risks of drug use. Teachers, parents and health care providers have the most important roles in teaching young people and preventing drug use and addiction.
Key Points About Substance Abuse
- Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by illicit drug compulsive use and seeking out, or difficult to control, despite the negative and harmful consequences.
- Brain changes that occur over time with drug use challenge an addicted person’s self-control and interfere with their ability to resist intense urges to take drugs. This is why drug addiction is also a relapsing disease.
- Relapse is the failure to stay in recovery and a return to drug use after an attempt to stop.
- With increased usage, the brain gets used to high amounts of dopamine. This reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drug—also known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug, trying to achieve the same dopamine high.
- Drugs affect the brain’s reward system by inundating it with the chemical messenger dopamine. This over-stimulation of the brain’s reward system causes the profoundly pleasurable “high” that leads people to take a drug again and again.
- Not a single factor can predict whether a person will become addicted to drugs. A sequence of genetic, environmental, and developmental factors weight the risk of addiction. The more risk components a person has, the greater the chance that taking drugs will lead to addiction.
- Drug addiction is treatable and can be successfully handled with proper substance abuse treatment.
- Drug use and addiction are preventable. Teachers, parents and health care providers have major roles in educating young people and preventing drug use and addiction.